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Updated. February 18, 2024 9:26:51

Understanding Amalgamation: Definition, Meaning, How it Works, Pros and Cons, Example and Amalgamation vs. Acquisition. What is Amalgamation. – ( Date. August 28, 2023 09:47:01 )

Amalgamation Definition

What is an Amalgamation? An amalgamation refers to the process of combining two or more separate entities, such as companies, organizations, or entities, to form a single new entity. This new entity inherits the assets, liabilities, operations, and other aspects of the entities being merged.

Amalgamations can occur in various sectors and industries, including business, finance, healthcare, and more. They are often used as a strategic move to achieve synergies, gain market share, or streamline operations.

How Amalgamations Work

The process of amalgamation typically involves the following steps:

  • Negotiation and Planning: The entities involved in the amalgamation negotiate the terms and conditions of the merger. This includes determining the share exchange ratio, valuation of assets and liabilities, and other legal and financial aspects.
  • Due Diligence: Both parties conduct thorough due diligence to assess the financial, legal, and operational aspects of each other’s businesses. This helps in identifying potential risks, opportunities, and challenges.
  • Shareholder and Regulatory Approvals: Shareholders of the merging entities need to approve the amalgamation plan. Additionally, regulatory authorities and governing bodies may need to grant their approval based on antitrust, competition, and other relevant regulations.
  • Legal Documentation: Legal documents, such as a scheme of amalgamation or merger agreement, are drafted to outline the terms, conditions, and procedural details of the amalgamation.
  • Implementation: Once all necessary approvals and documentation are in place, the entities proceed with the actual amalgamation. This involves transferring assets, liabilities, employees, and operations from the old entities to the new entity.
  • Post-Merger Integration: After the amalgamation, there’s a phase of integration where the combined entity’s operations, systems, cultures, and processes are harmonized to achieve the desired synergies.

The Pros and Cons of Amalgamations


  • Synergies: Amalgamations can result in cost savings, increased efficiency, and improved utilization of resources through synergies.
  • Market Power: Merged entities may have a stronger market presence, increased bargaining power, and a larger customer base.
  • Diversification: Combining different businesses can lead to diversification, reducing risks associated with a single business line.
  • Economies of Scale: Merged entities can benefit from economies of scale, leading to reduced costs per unit.


  • Integration Challenges: Integrating operations, cultures, and systems from different entities can be complex and time-consuming.
  • Loss of Identity: Merged entities may lose their individual identities, and employee morale might be impacted.
  • Regulatory Hurdles: Obtaining necessary regulatory approvals can be challenging and time-intensive.
  • Financial Risks: The amalgamation might not yield expected results, and financial performance could be adversely affected.
What is amalgamation
What is amalgamation

Example of Amalgamation

One example of an amalgamation is the merger between two technology companies, Company A and Company B. After negotiation, due diligence, and regulatory approvals, they decide to amalgamate.

Company A and Company B combine their assets, liabilities, employees, and operations to form a new entity, Company AB.

Amalgamation vs. Acquisition

While both amalgamation and acquisition involve combining entities, there is a key difference:

  • In an amalgamation, two or more entities come together to form a new entity. The original entities cease to exist.
  • In an acquisition, one entity (the acquiring company) purchases the assets and/or shares of another entity (the target company). The target company may continue to operate as a separate entity or be merged into the acquiring company’s operations.

In summary, an amalgamation is a strategic move to combine separate entities into a new one, with benefits like synergies and market power, but it also comes with challenges such as integration complexities. It’s distinct from acquisitions, where one entity purchases another while the purchased entity may or may not retain its identity.

Amalgamation FAQ

What Is the Objective of an Amalgamation?

The primary objective of an amalgamation is to create value by combining the strengths of two or more separate entities into a single, more efficient, and competitive entity.

The specific goals of an amalgamation can vary, but they generally include:

Synergies: Combining the resources, expertise, and operations of multiple entities can lead to synergistic benefits, such as cost savings, improved operational efficiency, and increased market power.

Market Expansion: Amalgamations can help entities expand into new markets, regions, or industries that they might not have been able to access individually.

Diversification: By merging with entities in different business lines, an organization can achieve diversification, reducing the risks associated with depending on a single business.

Economies of Scale: Larger entities resulting from an amalgamation can often benefit from economies of scale, leading to reduced costs per unit of production.

Enhanced Competitiveness: The combined strengths of merged entities can enhance their competitive position in the market and enable them to better face industry challenges.

Market Share: Merging with a competitor or complementary entity can lead to increased market share and greater influence within the industry.

What Are the Methods of Accounting for Amalgamation?

There are two primary methods of accounting for amalgamation:

1. Pooling of Interests Method: This method was historically used, but it’s no longer widely accepted under international accounting standards (such as IFRS) and many local regulations. Under this method, the financial statements of the merging entities are combined as if they had always been a single entity. Assets, liabilities, and reserves are merged at their existing carrying amounts without any adjustments.

2. Purchase Method (also known as Acquisition Method): This is the more commonly accepted method under modern accounting standards. In this method, the acquiring company (or the new entity formed through the amalgamation) treats the amalgamation as an acquisition of the assets and liabilities of the other entities. The acquiring company recognizes the assets and liabilities at their fair values at the date of amalgamation. Any difference between the purchase consideration and the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase, depending on the circumstances.

What Is an Amalgamation Reserve in Accounting?

In the context of accounting for amalgamations, an “Amalgamation Reserve” is a special reserve that is created on the balance sheet of the acquiring company or the new entity resulting from the amalgamation. It represents the difference between the amount of consideration paid to the shareholders of the merging entities and the net assets acquired (fair value of identifiable assets less liabilities) in the amalgamation.

The amalgamation reserve is not a distributable reserve and cannot be used to pay dividends to shareholders. It is maintained to reflect the premium paid over the fair value of net assets acquired and is typically disclosed separately on the balance sheet. It serves as a historical record of the excess consideration paid for the amalgamation.

In essence, the amalgamation reserve captures the non-operational component of the payment made during the amalgamation, which doesn’t relate to the direct value of the assets and liabilities acquired.